The supply chains for bulk commodities, including agricultural, metals/ores and some energies, are complex – usually necessitating transportation and storage using trucks, trains, ships, barges, pipelines, and terminals/storage facilities. These movements, and the assets utilized to make them, introduce and accumulate both cost and risk to the commodities owners with each step in the chain.
Additionally, as these commodities transit the supply chain, they may undergo changes that will impact their value, both as traded commodities and as a stock or inventory. These events can include transformations to finished products (such as refining crude oil into numerous petroleum products or grains milled into flour) and repackaging from bulk loads into smaller containers such as bags for wholesale or retail sales.
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